20-25 years ago, many Spanish workers searched and found themselves working in richer countries further north on the continent. Today, a good part of the Spanish economy works with immigrant workers, especially from Africa.
Northern and Eastern Europe - among them 1.2 million Romanians. Economic development of Spain has led to this influx of immigrants, who have just come to cover an imbalance of the labor market. From the source country, Spain has become a destination country for migration and it is not the only European example. The examples in the new wave show that the period of the transition between the two hypostases has been shortened. If we look at the case of Poland, we notice that at the same time the Polish plumber is an opportunity to debate in Paris, and on the construction sites in Gdansk, a symbolic place for the country's recent history, brings workers from Indiathrough a bilateral agreement signed between the two countries.
Migration is an uncontrollable phenomenon, say researchers confirms reality. Romania's example is eloquent, an anecdote that circulated through the public space said that only those who did not want did not leave. Indeed, most departures to work were before Romania's integration into the European Union, ie: when theoretically it was not allowed. Moreover, the people quarreling with the law have left massive and whenever they wanted. It is this independent character of migration that shows that control is not possible, but regulation is desirable. Returning to the examples
European Union, a brief comparison between Spain and Italy supports the need for immigration regulation. Spain has developed and implemented a coherent policy of import of labor and invested in the integration of immigrants. He made agreements bilateral, periodically allowed the legalization of the status of those who came on informal routes, a supported and stimulated the participation of immigrants in social security systems. All these meant additional costs. Italy, on the other hand, preferred costs minimums and immediate benefits, tolerating effervescent illegal or semi-illegal immigration.
In the medium and long term, this has led to the accumulation of social pressures and many problems related to the criminal environment developed among the communities of immigrants. In short, migration happens in response to concrete, economic issues and social, and ignoring it can lead to more serious problems. Returning to the starting point - the labor shortage – must stressed that immigration is the only viable short-term response, one or two years. Return migration is desirable, but for the moment it seems more like a dream nice of politicians than reality. Professional reconversion of social groups. Not involved in work is a rather slow process, especially since we are only at the beginning and there is not even a solid analysis of the target group, the right ones (Re) qualified. For all these reasons, immigration is an important topic to be on the agenda of the rulers.
We talked primarily about labor migration, because it is the main component of migration flows. People are moving for a better life, higher earnings, both through a better job and themselves they lead to where the economy is growing and there is a shortage of labor, so a job offer. Talking about the labor market is mandatory involvement of the main actors - employees and employers, each represented by associative structures, trade unions and employers 'associations (employers' associations).
A series of interviews were conducted within the Soros Foundation project semi - structured with representatives of these organizations - four employers' associations and five unions. The topics addressed were the situation on the labor market, developments, causes, perspectives; solutions to existing problems in this market; immigration; and how in which policies in this area are implemented.